Determinants of inter-tribal conflicts in Gadamoji division, Marsabit county, Kenya
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Conflicts refers to presence of restrained communication or lack of peace or state of interaction between two or more parties of more parties of a given society or group of societies. A conflict usually involves people or it could also involve people and other animals. Conflicts can also be state of human interaction where there is disharmony. Conflicts has series of elements which include causes, actors and outcome which in most cases can be fatal and losses of different levels depending on the scale of it. The purpose of this study is to bring out the determinants of constant tribal conflict in Marsabit County.Five research objectives were formulated to guide the study. Research objective one sought to determine the extent to which the availability of small arms have influenced tribal conflict in Marsabit Research objective two sought to establish the social cultural practices which have also influenced the constant tribal conflict in the County. Research objective three sought to assess the extent to which political factors have led to the tribal conflict in Marsabit County. Research objective four aimed at determining the extent to which competition over pasture and water points have influenced the tribal conflict in the County while research objective five sought to determine the actors of tribal conflicts in the County. The study used the descriptive survey design using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The target population for this study included the community elders, religious leaders, youth leaders, Government,officials,women leaders,politicians,school head teachers and the Non Governmental Organization heads in the area of study.The findings concluded that the availability of small arms greatly influenced the tribal conflict in the region. It was also concluded that social cultural practices like cattle rustling, revenges and initiation rites also fuelled the tribal conflicts in the area of the study ﾕ. The political incitation was also pointed out by the respondents as a strong ingredient and catalyst to the tribal conflicts determinant in the region. As always expected in every human settlement, the competitions over the limited resources of pasture land and water points by the pastoralists was also indicated by the respondents as unquestionable factors behind the tribal conflicts under the study. Worth noting also, the respondents identified politicians, herdsmen, youths and business people as foremen and women who formed- actors of the tribal conflicts.The recommendations included various actions to be taken by the Government, the community elders, the community professionals, the women representatives and all other stakeholders of development in provision of conducive environment for the inter tribal peace forums in order to reduce case of tribal conflicts in the greater Marsabit region.
University of Nairobi, Kenya