Social and Economic Causes of Terrorism in Kenya: a Case Study of Eastleigh Estate, Nairobi County
The general objective of this study was to assess the social factors that cause terrorism in Kenya with reference to Eastleigh Estate of Nairobi County in Kenya. Under this thematic consideration, the study‟s central focus was on determining the socio-economic causes of terrorism in Kenya; secondly, establishing the socio-cultural causes of terrorism in Kenya; thirdly, determining the extent to which the degree of access to resources causes terrorism in Kenya; and finally, determine the extent to which security policing contributes to terrorism in Kenya. The primary data was collected from 53 respondents as well as from key informants while secondary data was obtained from various published books as well as articles from various scholarly journals. The study found out that the social causes of terrorism in Kenya are as a result of a complex network of intertwined problems emanating from four main thematic areas, namely; the socio-economic conditions of Kenya; the politics of resource allocation and access; socio-cultural factors; and, the country‟s poor and wanting security system. This is because, if they were to be taken in isolation of one another, very few would cause terrorism on their own. Rather, their interlinkedness offers fodder to motivate and effectuate terrorist agendas. To this effect, the study concluded that terrorism is caused by the interplay of the country‟s socio economic conditions, resource marginalization, socio-cultural extremism and poor security policing policies and strategies. The study recommends that the Kenyan state should embrace a proactive role in its overall counterterrorism strategy. Secondly, in order to improve the country‟s efficiency in law enforcement as well as in enhancing intelligence gathering, the country‟s security agencies should be specially trained in counterterrorism techniques, policing best practices and public relations in order to inculcate a high degree of professionalism when dealing with the public. In addition, the country‟s socio-economic conditions need to be addressed so as to avert economic desperation being a breeding ground for terrorism. The study also calls for increased police – civilian cooperation as well as a citizen security directed security and the socialization of the populace into an effective security grouping. Finally the study recommends a need for a regional approach, synchronized activities among countries and institutions as well as intelligence sharing.
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