Effects Of Drug And Substance Abuse On Primary School Pupils’ Academic Performance In Kakuma Refugee Camp, Turkana County, Kenya
The specific aim of this research was to examine the effects of drug and substance abuse on primary school pupils’ academic performance in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Turkana County, Kenya. The objectives of study was to determine the degree of drug and substance abuse among primary school pupils; establish whether peer influence leads to drug and substance abuse among pupils in public primary schools; and determine whether parents who take drugs influence their pupils to abuse drugs in Kakuma Refugee Camp. The investigation was guided by Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory of 1986 which postulates that social behaviours are acquired from other people in a social context. The research used descriptive survey design and stratified sampling technique. The sample size was 200 pupils in class 7, 20 guiding and counseling teachers, 10 headteachers and 1 education officer of the primary schools. The study used primary data collected through questionnaires. The quantitative data was analyzed and presented using frequency tables and graphs, and qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis. The analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version. The findings indicated that alcohol was the generally abused drug among the drugs and substances abused among the pupils and was most commonly available. Other drugs and substances abused include tobacco, bhang and khat. Parental influence was one of the reasons explaining why pupils engage in drug abuse. The influence of extended family members, idleness and availability of drugs in schools also included reasons why the pupils also engaged in drug abuse. The findings on the peer influence on drug and substance abuse among pupils indicated that the source of drugs was from the school at 60%. Drug abuse among the pupils makes them not able to handle class activities after taking drugs. Drug abuse causes low concentration in class activities, causes failure to understand during lessons, and leads to fighting with other children and pupils rudeness to teachers. Pupils are likely to be involved in crime, sexual activities, suffer from HIV/AIDS diseases, drop out of school, poor academic performance, becoming a street child and violent behavior. Pupils would get 201-250 marks at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education in 2017. This indicates that the pupils might hardly pass the average mark in their KCPE. Majority of the parents and guardians had secondary level of education. Fathers had a higher level of education than the mothers and guardians. The findings on the extent of drug and substance abuse among primary school pupils indicated majority 55% of the guiding and counseling teacher’s respondents that alcohol was commonly abused and is the most commonly available. Alcohol is followed by tobacco as indicated by 45% teacher respondents then bhang as indicated by 35%. A few of the teachers 25% indicated that Khat was available and is abused by the pupils. The findings on the peer influence and drug and substance abuse among pupils indicated that majority of the respondents indicated that the source of drugs was from the school. Majority (65%) of the respondents also indicated that the drugs are sold at the market. Majority disagreed that the drugs used by the pupils are available at home. The findings on the parents taking of drugs and their pupil’s drug abuse revealed that 34% of the parents and guardians had secondary level of education as indicated by the pupils’ respondents while 22% had college/diploma level. A few of the parents 22% had primary level of education. The parents should be counseled on the impact of drug and inviting motivation speakers to advise the parents on how to handle the children in relation to drug and substance abuse.
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