Factors Influencing Adoption of Water Sanitation and Hygiene Practices in Kenya: A Case Of Shivanga Location, Kakamega County
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that influenced adoption of water, sanitation and hygiene practices among the population of Shivanga Location, Kakamega County. The objectives included; establishing how social cultural aspects; determining extent which community participation stages; assessing how accessibility to WASH interventions; and determining the extent which water sources influenced adoption of water, sanitation and hygiene practices in the study area. The researcher encountered bad terrain and poor road network that posed challenges to accessibility of respondents and water points during data collection. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design that was appropriate as it enabled the researcher to collect and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data. The study was conducted to the household members of Shivanga location, targeting a population of 4,000 households, with a sample size of 351 respondents as determined by Krejcie and Morgans table within which consisted of 2 NGO representatives and 2 Nursing Officers in Charge from the community health care facilities. Open and closed ended questionnaires were utilized as primary tools for data collection. The collection technique included document analysis, questionnaires and interviews. Piloting of the instrument sought using 10% of the sample size to ascertain validity of the instrument, reliability was assessed using test – retest reliability technique and yielded a coefficient of 0.8 above the recommended 0.7 by Creswell,. Literature was reviewed from previous studies and journals. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentage counts, categorical responses were then cross tabulated to analyze relationship between variables and to further ascertain their significance of association chi square tests were conducted and presented using frequency and percentage, cross tabulations and chi tables. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0, while qualitative data was thematically presented and reported in a narrative way. The study established that majorly socio-cultural aspects influenced the study as indicators studied within its components reveal that male roles significantly influenced adoption as presented by 166 (57.8%) of the respondent strongly agreeing, within which 107 (64.5%) held the opinion that it does and a p-value 0.005<0.05, female roles were was also significant as they were represented by 167 (58.2%) within which 108 (64.7%) acknowledged it’s influence, with a p-value 0.006<0.05. Level of education also influences adoption by 164 (57.1%) strongly agreeing, within which 106 (64.6%) acknowledged the influence which depicted a p-value 0.007<0.05. Information sharing was presented by163 (56.8%) who strongly agreed, within which 106 (65.0%) held the opinion that it does with a p-value 0.012<0.05. Community level planning as a component within community participation as a factor studied, also post a significant association to the dependent variable as represented by those who strongly agreed at 161 (56.1%), within which 104 (64.6%) held the opinion that it influences adoption with a p-value 0.008<0.05. Other factors that the studied revealed that policy implementation at multiple levels as a moderating factor, influenced adoption of WASH practices as elaborated with p-value 0.005. The study therefore recommends that further research is needed within the area of socio-cultural aspects and their influence in WASH behaviors.
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