Factors Influencing Sexual Behavior Among Slum Dwellers in Kenya: a Case of Behavior Change and Communication Project in Nyeri Town
The research study sought to examine factors influencing sexual behaviour among slum dwellers a case of sexual behaviour and communication project in Nyeri town. The study had four objectives which were; establishing poverty influences on BCC, examining cultural behaviour influences on BCC, establishing if availability of sexual reproductive health facilities influences BCC, and assessing how literacy level influences BCC. Despite many behaviour change and communication programs in Kenya, sexual behaviour has remained a key concern in urban population of developing countries. Among other things, poor economic conditions make it difficult to adequately manage the increasing number of people leading to economic and social inequality and acute health problems due to over-stretched healthcare infrastructure. Low socio-economic status and gender inequality explain the involvement of women in unsafe sexual behaviour .The study‟s objective was to establish factors influencing sexual behaviour among slum dwellers in Majengo in Nyeri Town, Kenya. The study was based on Problem Behavior Theory that was developed by Jessor et al in 2008. The relationship between study variables was demonstrated by a conceptual framework which illustrates the relationship between variables. The study adopted cross-sectional survey research design that embraced both quantitative and qualitative approaches in collecting data using questionnaires with a 5-point Likert scale to collect the required data. The target population was 1860 and the sample size was determined using Fisher et al to arrive to the 360 respondents. Data was analyzed using Statistical packages for Social Science (version 20) so as to present findings in descriptive statistics. Instrument‟s validity was enhanced through construct validity, internal and external validation which involved piloting while reliability was enhanced through Cronbach-Alpha Coefficient and triangulation with a representative sample. It was hoped that the study would generate vital information and add to the pool of knowledge to the expansive BCC projects implementation and evaluation. From the study it was established that poverty level impacts highly on sexual behaviour based on 81% of the respondents. The findings also indicated that there was a significant relationship between cultural behaviour and sexual behaviour whereby 57.2% were for the opinion that sex dialogue be initiated both at home and school. The sexual reproductive health facilities were availed and accessed at the health facilities as was expressed by 60.7% of the respondents but the same was not availed at the community drop in centres as was established by 53.5% of the respondents. The literacy levels influenced sexual behaviour as was realized from respondents whom 91.6% were for the sex education to be offered in schools. In conclusion, the researcher observed that there was high relationship between poverty, cultural practices, sexual reproductive health facilities availability and literacy level and sex behaviour among the slum dwellers. On this basis the researcher recommends for a comprehensive study to establish the influence of sexual reproductive health facilities availability at the community to slum dwellers as well as the influence of cultural behaviour towards sexual behaviour elsewhere in Kenya as a form of comparative study of the findings elsewhere in Kenya.
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