Prevalence and factors associated with alcohol use and depression in pregnant adolescents attending Kangemi health centre Nairobi
Background: Pregnant adolescents are at risk of developing various mental disorders due to the challenging environmental and psychosocial conditions they face. Teenage mothers are confronted with new demands and responsibilities associated with parenting In addition, they are often from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds, which often predisposes them to adverse mental health and psychosocial risks both prenatally and postpartum compared to adult mothers and their none pregnant peers. They are at a high risk of developmental, educational, and emotional and physical health difficulties and have high rates of depression and suicide. Adolescent mothers who lack other coping strategies may turn to alcohol abuse as a way of coping with the stress associated with motherhood. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy can increase the risk of maternal mortality and incidence of per partum complications and also cause low birth weight, deformities, fetal alcohol syndrome and neonatal mortality. Objective: To determine prevalence and factors associated with alcohol use and depression in pregnant adolescents attending Kangemi health center. Study Design: A cross sectional analytical study design was employed. Methodology: Screening for alcohol use was done using the WHO Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The Edinburg post-natal depression scale (EPDS) was used to screen for depression. The Becks depression inventory (BDI II) was used to confirm depression. A socio-demographic questionnaire was administered to assess factors that had significant associations with alcohol use. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize continuous data (such as age, gestational age) into frequencies and percentages.Univariate analysis was used to examine any xiv significant associations between prevalence of alcohol use in pregant teenagers and contributing factors by using Chi-square. Results: The study found that the prevalence of alcohol use to be 43.9% while that of any severity of depression was 89.2%. Factors that were associated with alcohol use in pregnancy were a higher level of education, a history of intimate partner violence, being depressed, living with someone who was alcoholic or using other drugs and using other psychoactive substances especially cigarettes. Fifty one point nine percent of respondents had severe depression. Currently consuming alcohol, being pressured into using alcohol, being single and being a student were all associated with increased odds for being depressed. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of alcohol use ( 43.9 %) and depression (89.2%) with those currently using alcohol , those experiencing harm from use of alcohol, those who were dependent on alcohol and those who had ever been pressured into using alcohol having a greater severity of depression. Screening and management of depression and substance use disorders is an important aspect of antenatal care and should be performed in all mothers attending antenatal clinics and even more so in pregnant adolescents.
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