The effects of the Somali conflict on security in the horn of Africa Sub-region
Karugu, Flora I
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The genesis of the Somali conflict can be traced to the year 1991, when Said Barre was ousted from power following a military coup d'etat Since then the country has not witnessed much peace despite various efforts by regional countries and the rest of the, international community. The study provides analyses of the nature of the conflict with focus on the causes of the conflict and the actors and issues attributed to the conflict since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in 1991. The study further analyses the past regional and international efforts employed to try to resolve the conflict in Somalia. The objective of the study is to analyse the effects of the Somali conflict on security in the Horn of Africa. More specifically, the study critically examines the causes of the Somali conflict and provides a policy analysis on the same. It explores the analytical linkage between the Somali conflict and security in the Horn of Africa region and further assesses regional and international efforts aimed at resolving the conflict. The Conceptual Framework adopted in the study is the internationalisation of conflicts and conflict systems. The study also refers to the realist theory, with a view to drawing a parallel between the protracted conflict in Somalia and its internationalisation nature. The methodology adopted in the study is mainly based in secondary sources of data obtained from books and journals. The research also uses other methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The causes of the Somali conflict is as a result of a number of factors which include the impact of the colonial legacy, Siad Barre's repressive regime and the political misuse of the clan system. Somalia is part of a larger conflict system, the Horn of Africa conflict system which includes all states in the Hom, in this case Ethiopia, Kenya, Eritrea, and Djibouti. There are also other countries involved, which have interests in Somalia in various ways. These include the United States of America and Egypt and countries comprising the League of the Arab States. The conflict in Somalia has posed security challenges to the regional countries and the international community. This includes: the flaw of small arms and light weapons into neighbouring countries; the influx of refugees from Somalia into these countries resulting to humanitarian crises due to the overcrowded nature of the refugee camps and the resultant economic burden posed to the host nations; piracy and terrorism resulting to the insecurity situation in Somalia which pose challenge to regional and international peace and security. The internalisation of the conf1ict is indicative of the fact that the success of realising a solution in Somalia lies in solving the root cause of the Somali Conflict and minimising the external interference in the country. These countries should aim to support Somalia rather than advocate for their own vested interests. The study concludes that for lasting peace to prevail in Somalia, the solution should emanate from the Somalis themselves with the concerted support of regional and international community.