Enhancing biological diversity: a study of the development of international law relating to the conservation of global biological diversity
Among the many environmentaﾣ challenges that hlli~ankind continue to grapple with this century, is 105s of components of biological diversity. There is scientific proof that the planet is loosing its biological wealth at an unprecedented rate. Development activities and the steady increase in'human population have played an instrumental role in the impoverishment of biological diversity. But what makes the' challenge posed by loss 'of ccmpcnents'of bioiogical diversity unique is that it impoverishes, the human race as a whole. However, the internatior.al community has not watched the silent ritual take its toll. On th'e contrary, it has over the year's striven to conserve components of this global resource through various legal rrechanism.'3 and strategies. This study attemps a comprehensive examination of the nature, character and extent of existing international legal mechanisms and strategies in the. realm of biodiversity conservation. SpeCificallly, the study seeks to decipher the principal normative approaches i.t h a vi.ew to assessing their adequacy, consis.tency and effects. It also acdresses current developments and the future of biological diversity. It is posited that an international legal regime would greatly enhance conservation of carp:>nents.of biological diversity on a glcbal scale. ill equaped to enhance conservation of co m ponents of b i.o Ioq i.ce.L divens it.y, In particular, although there has been alot of Law making activity in the realm of protect ins b i.o Loq i.ca.L diversity and the marine environment from pollution, it < is evident t nat, mar ine pollution re~~a.in5 ~ pr ob Lern, There r.as been no Slc~al attempt to combat marine pollution f r ora Land+oas ed sources out, ccnrrendab Ie .efforts have been made to curb de)letion of Lie stratospheric ozone layer during the 'ext c cn t ur y , international community has s t ar t ec addr e s s i n.; t.he pr ob Lcr..ﾫ uf the pollution of air and their possible e f f ecr.s on Slu;)d biological diversity through the pr cpos ec cc.nverrt i.on on glooc.il warning and possible clirnate change. Chapter Four shows t.hat; the international communi.ty now realizes and acknowledges the ma~~itude of-the challenge posed by loss of cOltlJOnents of biological diversity and is actively involved in - making the necessary amends through the cevelopment of a global convention on the issue. It is evident that in order to conserve componeRts of biological diversity the convention should be based on the widest consensus of the international corruaun i.t y, It .i s < derronstrated that several contentious issues .must; be reconcilcc before a meaningful . Instirument; can be reecy for s i.cnat.ure by June 1992. -The picture which etaerges is that whereas develop ins countries must corrumit themselves to conserve dwinc~ing stocks uf . .(f the'plariets biological diversity within their jurisdiction, developed countries should commit t.herase Ive s to provide the necessary outlay of funds. It is also clear that to address carponents of biological diversity effectively and on a global scale the proposed convention must be a comprehensive package . . In this chapt.ez proposals are made on the basis of the on-going negotiations as at June 1991 on the proposed global convention which would ensure an equitable package. Finally, it is posited that whereas a global instrument would be a powerful catalyst to inspire and guide attempts to conserve . . dWindling stocks of the planets ﾕﾕ biological diversity f!J11datrental challenges facing devel.oping countries, that is to poverty, and underdevelopment should also be addressed. our development that biological genocide could be averted QuI' date material for the study. The data enabled us satisfy most of our hypotheses, that is to .say, the current upsurge in global att:el'i\?ts manisfestation of the realization and acknowledgement by the international copnnunity of the finiteness of biospheric resources and looming disaster that unchecked loss of biological diversity could have on the survival -and develbprrent of humankind.