Adult male circumcision: results of a standardized procedure in Kisumu District, Kenya
Magoha, G A
Ndinya-Achola Jeckoniah O.
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Objective: To develop a standard procedure for male circumcision in a resource-poor medical setting and prospectively evaluate the outcome in a randomized, controlled trial with the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the main outcome, as studies suggest that circumcision is associated with a lower incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in high-risk populations. Subjects and Methods: Healthy, uncircumcised, HIV-seronegative men aged 18-24 years from Kisumu District, Kenya, were offered participation in a clinical trial using a standard circumcision procedure based on "usual" medical procedures in Western Kenya. The follow-up included visits at 3, 8 and 30 days after circumcision, with additional visits if necessary. Healing, satisfaction and resumption of activities were assessed at these visits and 3 months from randomization. Results: Overall, 17 (3.5%) of the 479 circumcisions were associated with adverse events judged definitely, probably or possibly related to the procedure. The most common adverse events were wound infections (1.3%), bleeding (0.8%), and delayed wound healing or suture line disruption (0.8%). After 30 days, 99% of participants reported being very satisfied with the procedure; approximately 23% reported having had sex and 15% reported that their partners had expressed an opinion, all of whom were very satisfied with the outcome. About 96% of the men resumed normal general activities within the first week after the procedure. Conclusion: Safe and acceptable adult male circumcision services can be delivered in developing countries should male circumcision ultimately be advocated as a public-health measure.