Strategy implementation at Kenya National Highways authority (KENHA)
Strategy formulation refers to the process of choosing the most appropriate course of action for the realization of organizational goals and objectives and thereby achieving the organizational vision. It is known that strategy is generally a medium for realization of organizational objectives. Objectives stress the state of being there whereas Strategy stresses upon the process of reaching there. Strategy includes both the fixation of objectives as well the medium to be used to realize those objectives. Thus, strategy is a wider term which believes in the manner of deployment of resources so as to achieve the objectives. Strategy implementation is the process of putting strategies into action-based road map that will help an organization achieve its organizational objectives. A successful implementation depends largely on successful planning and formulation processes. It is always more difficult to implement strategies than to formulate them. The strategic management process does not end when the firm decides what strategy or strategies to pursue. For successful strategy implementation, an organization should understand the impact on strategy of external environment, internal resources and competences, and the expectations and influence of stakeholders. The objective of the study was to determine the strategy implementation in the Kenya National Highways Authority. The research design was a case study of the Authority. The data collection tool was an interview guide where content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative primary data collected by conducting interviews from the respondents. The findings from the study indicate that the Authority adopted strategic practices such as continuous monitoring and evaluation that generates quarterly and annual progress reports, capturing various aspects of the strategy in the performance contract and annual work plans, dividing the strategy into short term and medium term strategies, use of consultancy and involvement of all stakeholders. The factors which influenced strategy implementation were organizational structure, culture, insufficient resources, and poor communication, leadership challenges and reward mechanism in place. The recommendations for policy and practice are that the management of the Authority should incorporate all the employees in strategy formulation and implementation, in addition the structure and the culture practiced in the Authority should be optimised to support implementation of the strategy. The Authority through the ministry of Roads should liaise with the Treasury for allocation of more funds and lobby for financial support from development partners and also pursue ways of generating fund. It is also important for employees who implement strategies to be adequately rewarded and communication enhanced at every stage of strategy implementation.