New trends in Ushairi
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Looking at ushairi today, we can observe that there is a new type of ushairi writing. In its social differs markodLy from the traditionally established character of the genre. u It is this new type of ushairi +hat we have explored in this study under our title New Trends in Ushairi. In this study, we have referred to this new trends as Ushairi- Huru and Versified modern Ushairi. Ushairi-Huru is a recent phenomenon in ushairi. It is one written for a reading audience in our new East African societies. Because this artistic development reflects the general rejection of the established rules of scansion, the traditional wanashairi (wanajadi) have rejected it as non-ushairi.. As a result of this rejection, a controversy has arisen as to the definition of ushairi. Also as a result of this debate, this body of poetic expression has received not only little critical attention, but also little publicity.This study has arisen as a result of a deep interest in this debate. Because of the socio-historical context of Ushairi-Huru, it is necessary for a clear comprehension of the motivation and setting of it's trend. For this reason, our first chapter is dedicated to a brief historical survey highI ighting what was there before Ushairi-Huru arose. In this chapter, "Early Ushairi,"we witness the moving of ushairi from its oral mode through such landmarks as the neo-classical mode, to the intentioual "defective" verse. The latter is here seen as a precursory stage of Ushairi-Huru. The second chapter, "The Development of Ushairi-Huru " examines three poets who, in the opinion of this author, represent the Washairi-Huru. In this chapter, our concern was to discuss literary innovations in ushairi . Here, we meet avant-garde washairi in their attempts to cleanse ushairi of traditional isms and rigid metrical patterns. "Versified Modern Ushairi: the Quest for a Compromise" is our third chapter. Here, we have examined three washai rt in so far as they prove aware of the passion for stylistic extremism in the tradi tional and "modern" washairi and therefore decide to strike a compromise. To achieve this goal, these mediators take the conventions that were followed strictly by the washairi- jadi and use them with the flexibility found in Ushairi-Huru. Thus, the chapter titIes are descriptive of the prevailing techniques of ushairi, and attempt to summarize the essential characteritics of the genre at a specific historical period. It is worth noting at this juncture that the term ushairi is synonymous with the term ''verse" in English and is therefore used in very much the same sense. Therefore, ushairi is referred to in its broad meaning of verse in general, including all forms of verse compositions. Thus, the total corpus of ushairi can further be sub-divided into forms such as Tendi, long-measure, and Tarbia, among others. In conclusion, we view the stages of artistic development in ushairi as logically related to the Swahili-speaking community of East Africa. In our investigation of the chief factors leading to the emergence of !l.2lu51iri-Huru, it becomes clear that the basic cause of change is not mere radical ism. In the chapter on Ushairi -Huru, we attempt to show that the present ushairi is a new genre brought about by the changes and growth of the Swahili-speaking society of East Africa during the post-independence era. Our study has tried to demonstrate that there are social, political and cultural conditions which have led to the emergence of this ushairi. We have tried to counter the misconception that ushairi has static rules that should be followed in its composition. We have excellence in novelty and degree of artist,:; and concluded that demonstrated the general Ushairi-Huru is the result of the influence of the social environment that is continually transforming it into a suitable vehicle of communication and art form.