Human adaptive strategies in eastern Lake Turkana region during the Holocene period
The reconstruction of past human behavioral patterns from material remains recovered from archaeological record is one of the major goals of archaeology. It is recognized that these patterns of human behavior are the result of a complex set of interplay between cultural and environmental factors. In order to achieve this goal, it is argued that the archaeologist must have a well-founded knowledge on how the recovered materials, were used. In this study, 1 explore human adaptive strategies in resource exploitation using microlithics at the Galana Boi deposits (Holocene) within the Koobi Fora formation. The sites that are examined in the eastern shores of Lake Turkana are, GaJi4 at Dangodien, FwJj5 at lleret, Ga.Ji l2 at Alia Bay and FxJj 12N at Karari. This work is different from previous Barthelme (1983), Nelson (1973) done in the study area because of its approach, organization and treatment of data. Previous research for example Batherlrne (1983) seemed to have paid attention to regional site comparisons with emphasis on land use patterns. Replicated tools are used to perform some tasks to find the micro edge damage which is compared with those formed on tools recovered from the archaeological record using a low power microscope at x40 magnit1cation. This is important in shaping our understanding of the complex nature of the derived behavior patterns among the llolocene toolmakers. Indeed functional and experimental studies provide an insight into the tasks that these tools might have performed. Based on the analysis of edge wear on different 100ls from Levallios technology it appears quite well to accommodate the notion of highly skilled toolmakers. Experimental and functional analysis of tools recovered from the Holocene deposits has brought up several issues relating to adaptive strategies. The data presented here is in line with more generalized subsistence strategy based on locally available resources. The idea of Levallois technique is found to be consistent. with the specialized approach to subsistence but what can be inferred from stone manufacture and usage in the centralized location of the settlements. The level of artistic coordination is also found to be amazingly high.