Kenya - Ethiopia relations: a study of the significance of economic and political factors contributing to co-operation,1963 - 1991
This thesis analyses and explains the nature of inter-state relations between Kenya and Ethiopia. An analysis of the two countries' relations shows that despite change of leadership in both Kenya and Ethiopia and despite the fact that the two countries had different colonial backgrounds and different ideologies/Kenya -Ethiopia relations remained good. There was co-operation between them for more than two decades. Further analysis is shows that certain economic and political factor s contributed to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations. The economic factor was mainly trade while the political factor s included geopolitics and the security factor. The question that is raised here is : What was the significance of these factors in contributor co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations ? Specifically then / the study seeks to analyze and explain the significance of economic and political factors that underlay co- operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations during 1963 - 1931. The aims of the study therefore were: 1. To show the extent to while trade contributed to co-operative Kenya Ethiopian relations. 2 To show the extent to which the security factor contributed to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations . 3. To show the extent to which geopolitics contributed to co- operative Kenya - Ethiopia rel&tions . This study tested the following three hypotheses 1 . That bilateral trade was significant in contributing to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations . 2 That the security factor was significant in relations. 3. contributing to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia That geopolitics was significant in contributing to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations . In this study, library research constituted the dominant source of information. The bulk of the information was obtained from secondary sources namely, books, newspapers, magazines, journals, and published and unpublished speeches of government leaders . This data collection technique was found useful to our study because it was cheap as most of the needed materials were found in the libraries within Nairobi where the research was conducted. Secondly this technique enabled us to find some data which could not be found through interviews, especially data a on Kenya Ethiopia security matters. We overcame this problem by reading journals like the African Research Bulletin. ,Africa Contemporary record, Africa Diary, and newspapers, where we could either find the whole treaty and communique quoted or part of ~he treaty and communique quotes.. The problem we faced by using this technique was that of confirming the factor that was significant in contributing to co operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations. Due to such limitations, unstructured- oral interviews were conducted among some Kenyan and Ethiopian government officials involved in the countries ' relations. Those interviewed included, Kenyan government officials in, Kenya External Trade Authority; Central Bureau of Statistics and Foreign Affairs Ministry: The Ethiopian government officials interviewed were mainly found in the Ethiopian Embassy in Nairobi. Through the interviews therefore, we were able to confirm the factor which was significant in contributing to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations. The findings shows that despite change of leadership in both Kenya and Ethiopia and despite the fact that the two countries had different colonial backgrounds and different ideologies, Kenya and Ethiopia traded with each other during 1963 - 1991. It was noted that the interdependence of the two countries and the convergence of their national interests made it imperative that they trade with each other. According to Kenya and Ethiopia, fraternal relations and mutually beneficial economic co-oporation could not be achieved without promotion of trade between the two countries. The emphases made by Kenya and Ethiopia to improve trade between themselves; the available trade figures between the two countries and the findings of the interviews carried out confirmed that trade contributed to co-oporative Kenya - Ethiopia relations. Further findings especially those of trade figures between Kenya and Uganda and Kenya and Tanzania, however shows that Kenya traded more with her two East African neighbors Uganda and Tanzania. Those findings made us to argue that trade contributed to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations only to a small extent. Further findings shows that~ the security factor also contributed to co-oporative Kenya - Ethiopia relations. It was deduced that Somalia always aims at incorporating what was formerly the Northern Frontier District of Kenya and the Ogaden region of Ethiopia. Kenya and Ethiopia however objects very strongly to Somalia's claims. The emphases to protect their territories against Somalia's claims were made in the 1960's, 1970's, 1980's and beginning of 1990' s. That position was maintained by, Emperor Haile Selessie, Mengitsu Haile Mariam and Meles Zenawi all of Ethiopia and Presidents, Kenyatta and Moi of Kenya. According to Kenya and Ethiopia, the realization of self - determination would violate the territorial integrity of Kenya and Ethiopia. During the interviews, we noted that the convergence of the two countries' national interests based on the need to protect their territories against Somalia's claims made it imperative that they cooperate. In fact, the secur ity factor was the main factor that brought about the co-oporative Kenya - Ethiopia relations. Other finding shows that geopolitics also contributed to co oporative Kenya - Ethiopia relations. It was noted that, nearness cf Kenya and Ethiopia to each other, sharing of peaceful borders by Kenya and Ethiopia and Ethiopia's and Kenya's positions in the Horn of Africa made it imperative that the two countries co- oporate. During the interviews however, we confirmed that geopolitics contributed to co-oporative Kenya Ethiopia relations, but that it was not the factor which was significant in contributing to the two countries' co-operative relations. Basing our argument on the findings of the written data and on those of the interviews, we conclude that the security factor was significant in contributing to co-oporative Kenya - Ethiopia. Relations . Of the three hypotheses therefore, hypothesis two proved to be significant in contributing to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations. A fact of shared interest therefore made it imperative that the two countries co-operate. In the course of gathering our data, we encountered certain problems. First we discovered that despite the 28 years of Kenya - Ethiopia a interactions, not sufficient literature has been generated dealing with their relations. We sought to overcome t.hta problem by reading different journals especially, the African based journals like the African Research Bulletin, Africa Diary, Africa Contemporary Record and others. Secondly, we found it problematic to acquire data on Kenya - Ethiopia security matters. This problem was considered to have been accentuated by the sensitivity of the topic. Information on the signed treaties and communiques for example could not be reached even after along trial as the interviewed of facial s considered them confidential. We again overcame this problem by reading journals like the, African Research Bulletin, Africa Contemporary Record , Africa Diary, Keesings Contemporary Achieves, and Newspapers where we could either find the whole treaty and the whole communique or part of the treaty and communique quoted. This study however provided seme modest contribution to the field of international relations in general and the study of African international relations in particular. Those interested in ~knowing the significance of economic and political factors that contributed to co-operative Kenya - Ethiopia relations during 1963-1991 are now provided with some data.