Challenges facing teachers in implementing guidance and counseling programme in public secondary shools
Guidance and counseling (G&C), has been identified." as an important aspect in Educational and Training institutions, by many countries in the world, owing to its internationally recognized role of improving all aspects of quality education. Although G&C programme has existed in the Kenyan learning institutions since the 1970s, these institutions still experience problems that are expected to be prevented and even solved through the programme. This study endeavored to find out the challenges teachers face while implementing the G & C programme in public secondary schools. To begin with, it aimed at investigating how well the G & C teachers were skilled, finding out how well schools were equipped with G & C facilities and how the G & C departments were supported by the school administration. In addition, the study sought to determine the attitude of teachers towards G & C services and identification of other challenges that the G & C programme faced in secondary schools. Finally, ways were suggested in which these challenges could be overcome. Research questions were formulated in line with the above objectives. The literature reviewed delved into the concept of guidance and counseling, its history and the importance of training of teachers in guidance and counseling skills. The G & C programmes administrative support, its role in schools, the students' attitude towards G&C service and the impact ofG & C in facilitating the teaching and learning process were also explored. The incisive review has helped ground the study and has been utilized to ascertain the findings of the study. e,"" The research design employed was ex-post facto. A sample of 60 teachers and 10 headteachers from Kikuyu Division was arrived at through proportionate stratified sampling of schools and purposive sampling of teachers. Instruments used in the study were teachers' and head teachers' questionnaires to collect data and their validity was established as adequate. Data from the questionnaire was analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics, in particular frequencies and percentages. From the fmdings it was established that the G & C teachers did not have adequate G & C skills and lacked sufficient administrative support, especially on fmancial provision to run the programme effectively. Additionally, challenges such as lack of motivation of teachers and inadequate time to render G & C services. The study further established that in spite of teachers having a positive attitude towards the G & C programme, its ability to boost the teaching and learning process and improve discipline among students was wanting. The study identified remedies to address these challenges. These included: provision of resources and funds toward G&C programmes in schools, initial training and in servicing of G&C teachers, motivation of G&C teachers, creating time for G&C programme in the school timetable and involving all stakeholders in G&C issues. From the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made: 1. A more comprehensive G&C curriculum should be incorporated in pre service courses for all teachers to ensure that they are fully trained counselors as well as regular in servicing for practicing G&C teachers in schools. 2. G&C departments should be adequately staffed and G&C be allocated adequate time in the school timetable to enable teachers to comfortably handle their clients without overstretching into their free time. 3. Funds be deliberately allocated to the G&C department, and where possible parents and community-based organizations be involved. 4. Recognition and motivation be provided for the G&C teachers. 5. Counseling referral centers manned by the Ministry of Education be made accessible to schools. From the study the following areas were recommended for further research. • There is need to investigate how Guidance and Counseling influences the students' performance. • An evaluation of different G&C curricula offered by different colleges for harmonization purpose. • A similar study in an urban setting for purpose of comparison. • An investigation on the viability of Guidance and counseling resource centres which could also act as referral centres for schools.