Prevalence of streptococcus a gala ctiae and Staphylococcus aureus in camel (camelus dromedarius) Milk in Garissa and Wajir districts of kenya, their Sensitivity to antibiotics and acceptability of Camel milk and its products
Camel milk is commonly consumed raw by pastoralists in arid areas who may be unaware of the risks posed by such milk. It was therefore very important to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae, which are some of the most common pathogens in such milk. Camel milk samples from Garissa and Wajir were analyzed to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The antibiotic resistance of the bacteria was also studied. Milk samples (n =207) were aseptically obtained from primary marketing agents. Samples were analyzed for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. The confirmed Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were subjected to diffusion sensitivity test. Resistance was determined by measuring the diameter of the zone cleared by the antibacterial and the isolates were reported as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate camel milk and milk product acceptabili ty. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in the two districts differed with Garissa having higher percent incidence both for Staphylococcus aureus (34.95%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (37.79%). Wajir, had lower prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus (10.58%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (7.69%). Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae were resistant to most of the antibiotics except Gentamicin. x Although camel milk and milk products were acceptable, each had different quality parameters that attracted customers. The most important purchasing criterion for raw camel milk was taste (27%, 19% and 18%) for Wajir, Garissa and Nairobi respectively. While packaging (18%, 18% and 16%) was more important for pasteurized milk also in the same order. For yoghurt the most important purchasing criteria were taste (18%) and aroma (19%). The taste of sour camel milk is the most important attribute in both Garissa (30%) and Nairobi (24%). The results indicate the potential health risk of consuming raw camel milk and increasing incidences of resistance of mastitis organisms to the common antibiotics. There is need to educate camel milk producers on hygienic milk production as well as inform the raw camel milk consumers on dangers involved. Marketing of camel milk and products can be enhanced using the attributes appropriate for each product in the respective district.