An Analysis of the Planning and Implementation of HIVand AIDS Communication Interventions by NGOs in Kenya
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This study investigated whether organisations involved in HIVand AIDS education have integrated effective communication planning and implementation processes in their interventions. The study's overall objective was to analyse the planning and implementation of the communication interventions within non-governmental organisations dealing with HIV,and AIDS. Specifically, the study set out to: examine the extent to which organisations involved in HIV and AIDS education programmes have integrated an effective communication process at the decision-making level; analyse the planning of the communication process of these organisations with a view to assessing their conformity with acceptable communication principles; and to identify the strengths, gaps and constraints in the existing planning of the communication process of the said organisations. The study was conducted in Nairobi and Kisumu, where the headquarters of the sampled organisations are. An inventory of six hundred and forty-five organisations registered by the Kenya NGOAIDS Consortium (KANCO)was used for multi-stage sampling. Two hundred and sixty organisations were found to have educational and communication interventions and these were isolated for study. These isolated organisations were divided into three categories of international and regional organisations, national organisations and local organisations. These categories were then used to randomly select sixty organisations which had information, education, and communication (IEC)or communication as a major programme or project. xi Both primary and secondary sources of data were used. Primary data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, and key informant interviews. Data from the semi-structured interviews were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), while data from the key informant interviews were analysed along thematic areas and used to support the information derived from the semi-structured interviews. The findings are presented using triangulation, as well as visual graphics, such as bar charts and pie charts. The first major finding is that there were attempts to integrate an effective communication process in the planning, design and decisionmaking level. However, complete operationalisation or integration was lacking as only 6% of the organisations had a person with training in communication, in charge of communication interventions. Secondly, there were components of behaviour change communication, combined with awareness-raising for about 50% of the organisations. Finally, in terms of strengths, the findings indicate that participation was well integrated in most of the organisations' interventions. The study therefore concludes that, first, the majority of organisations have not fully integrated communication in a sustainable manner at the decision-making level, in spite of their recognition that communication should be integral to decision-making and planning. Second, about a half of the organisations had embraced effective communication principles in the implementation of their interventions. Finally, contrary to one of the assumptions made in this study, participation was a key component for about three-quarters of the organisations. On the basis of these conclusions, the study recommends to the National Aids Control Council (NACC) , that there is need for mapping of organisations working on HIV and AIDS interventions, particularly with regard to their communication efforts. The study also recommends further research into the following areas: analysis of the contribution of communication to lower prevalence rates in Kenya; the focus on HIVand AIDS messaging; in-depth research on culture, sexuality and sexual behaviour as this relates to communication; evaluation of HIVand AIDS communication interventions in Kenya; audience studies on HIV and AIDScommunication in Kenya; and the mass media and HIVand AIDS.