Familial tendency and dietary association of goitre in Gamo-Gofa, Ethiopia.
A croa-seclional sludy which was descriplive and analylical in nalure was conducted in 1997 among elementary school children age 6-18 years and bolh their biological parenls in Kucha and Gofa-Zuria woredas. Came-Cola. Ethiopia. The study aimed at assessing the familial tendency and dietary association of goitre. The investigation comprised clinical examination for goitre. collection and laboratory analysis of water and urine samples and inlerviewing of molhers about foods eaten and about goitre history of grand parents of the children. A total of 1791 subjects of which 597 were school children and the rest their corresponding biological parents. were selected from seven schools of two woredas by systematic random sampling method. Prevalence of goitre in the study population was found to be 51.7% of which 21.7% was visible goitre. Goitre ratio belween parents (falhers: mothers) was 2:5 for parents age group 20-45 years, and 2:9 for those 46 years of 'age and above. Familial tendency of goitre between parenls and their children was strongly significant. Level of association of goitre was slronger between mothers and their children (p< 0.0000 and Odds Ralio = 13.08) than fathers and the children (p<O.OOl and Odds Ratio = 4.27). Halleko (JIori/lffa s/e/lope/aJa) was commonly consumed as leafy vegetable in the study area. and those who consume halleko more lhan two times XVlI per day were found to have high prevalence of goitre than those who consume less than two times per day (p<O.005). Laboratory results indicate that the mean urinary iodine excretion level was greater than 9 }..lgl/dL in almost all study groups which showed that the study group had adequate dietary intake of iodine. The results also showed that other factors besides iodine deficiency were playing role in goitre causation. Laboratory analysis showed that drinking water was contaminated with E.coli and coliform micro-organisms to the level which could be considered unfit for human consumption. However, the relationship between microbial load in the drinking water and the goitre prevalence was not signi ficanl. The results therefore indicate that the prevalence of goitre in Carne-Cola. Ethiopia was due to hereditary as well as dietary factors. It is recommended that further investigations be carried out to elucidate the role played by both dietary factors and familial tendency in goitre prevalence. Appropriate action is also required to revitalize and effect the inlrrupled IDD control progamme in the country so as to reduce the prevalence of goitre in the study area and country as a whole