The effects of seedborne funci on the quallty of maize grain in Kenya
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According to a survey conducted in 5 districts in Kenya during the period 1982/83, many fungi were associated with maize grains. These fungi were found to have adverse effects on gralns as feed and seed. Fusarium and Penicillium ~ were found ln all samples and Aspergillus ~ in 80% of the samples. Septoria maydis was also observed in one sample from Nakuru. Most of the fungi observed caused percent infection below 10% except Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium ~ whose level of infection were 24.3%, 17.2% and 16.4% respectively. Diplodia maydis and Septoria maydis were found on dark-brown dead seeds. Fusarium moniliforme were isolated from 80% of the samples and hindered germination in pink seeds, while in others it caused blight and root-rot. High infection at the hilum of the seeds by Penicillium oxalicum killed the seeds. Cephalosporium acremonium was isolated from seeds which were dark-brown at the hilum. Samples from Meru had high infection by Aspergillus ~E£ and environmental conditions were ideal for aflatoxin production. On TLC analysis these grains yielded 65 ~g/kg total aflatoxin. Application of the f un gi.c i des Captan and Fernasan D effectively controlled most of the fungi without serious side effects. Benomyl eradicated all fungi but caused phytotoxicity to young seedlings.