A review of the control of phlebotomine sandflies (diptera: psychodidae) and a survey of responses on management of visceral leishmaniasis by residents living in a focus of the disease in Marigat, Kenya.
visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious disease caused by species of the parasitic protists Leishmania. It can affect humans living in parts of the tropics and sub-tropics and is transmitted by Phlebotomus sandflies. I review the current knowledge of the disease with emphasis on its occurence in Kenya. The annual increase of reported cases indicates that a detailed study of vector habitats,. animal reservoirs and SOC10- economic policies on the disease is neccessary. A survey was conducted in a focus of the disease in western Kenya to investigate the control of sandflies. Residents were interviewed on issues related to vector control and observations were made of factors that influence the use of control measures. Age, life styles and population migrations had a direct effect on the risk of sandfly attack. Children aged 3-14 years appeared more at risk as well as inhabitants who were pastoralists. Use of permethrin-impregnated screens as barriers or repellants was limited by the cost of materials used, handling and effectiveness of the insecticide against different vector species. Current treatment of patients with injections of pentavalent antimonials is expensive due to the length of treatment and the distance the patient must travel to receive it. I conclude that there is need for increased public education, structural development plans that include sandfly management strategies and control methods that would ensure the removal of breeding and resting sites of the vectors within human habitation. i