Development of secondary school education in Mombasa and Kilifi Districts of Kenya - a comparative analysis: 1964-78
Bagha, Abdulhamid M.
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This thesis attempts to explore the development of secondary school education in two districts of Kenya, namely Mombasa and Kilifi districts, in the post-independence era. Mombasa is an urban centre, whereas Kilifi is a predominantly rural district. The colonial government favoured development of educational services .in urban centres, where the majority of the non-African population lived. This is evident from the fact that towards the close of the colonial era nine government-aided secondary schools existed in Mombasa whereas in the neighbouring district of Kilifi, only St. George's High School provided education up to form four level. After independence, the Government has pledged to accelerate development in the rural areas of the country. Kenya's National Development Plans emphasize. rural- development , This study is essentially divided in three parts, in line with the three development plan periods from 1964 to 1978. This thesis, therefore, discusses, the shift in emphasis towards development of secondary school education in a rural district vis-a-vis an urban centre during the three development plan periods. In doing so, it tries to show the growth of secondary schools in the two districts, qualifications of teachers, various facilities provided in the schools, examination results, etc. This thesis further examines the economic, political, cultural and social factors which affect the development of secondary school education in Mombasa and Kilifi districts. These factors, as is revealed in the the~is, have a strong relevance to the growth of education. For instance, the economic factor determines the ability of the parents to pay school fees, to contribute towards harambee school projects, to provide facilities for useful study at home, etc. The cultural background of the people has a bearing on the willingness of the parents, or otherwise, to send their daughters to school. The growth of primary education has an effect on the development of secondary school education. This thesis, therefore, discusses the development of primary education in two districts during the three development plan periods, and tries to show· what bearing it has on the development of secondary school education. It also attempts to examine in some detail the development of secondary school education in the two districts before independence to enable the reader to assess the situation during the colonial era. The thesis further gives a detailed geographical and historical background of Kilifi and Mombasa districts. - x - In one of the chapters relevant literature is reviewed at length; here an attempt is made to show how studies undertaken by various scholars in Kenya and elsewhere on rural versus urban education are related to my theme, and how my thesis tries to fill in the gap in the context of two districts in Kenya. Finally, this thesis based on certain findings, makes recommendations with regard to the development of secondary school education in a rural area vis-a-vis an urban centre.