The diagnostic role of ultrasonography in patients with thyroid gland enlargement at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya (E. Africa).
Background /\ prospective cross section study was carried out at the Department or Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Medicine of the University of Nairobi, the X-ray Department of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), the Thyroid Clinic [TC] of KNll and the Department of Pathology. University of Nairobi. During the study in a period spannmg SIX months, 70 patients presenting with goiter at KNH thyroid clinic and sent for ultrasound evaluation, were recruited into the investigation using purposeful sampling technique. Demographic data was gathered for each case before ultrasonography being carried out on the thyroid gland using real time and Doppler modes in axial [transverse] and longitudinal [sagittal] planes. The sonographic features of each thyroid nodule studied were size, internal consistency, echogenicity relative to adjacent tissue. vascularity at CFI, margination and presence of calcification and a sonoluscent peripheral halo. lesions then underwent FNA for cytology or excision biopsy lor histology to rule out malignancy. Data collection was done using a presorted questionnaire filled by the researcher. It was analyzed by SPSS computer software and results presented in form tables, charts and graphs. Results: ()2.R(/'i) or patients with thyroid enlargement were female. The male: female ratio was found to he I: I). The age range or patients with thyroid enlargement varied from 18 to 77yrs. Goiter was most noticeable' in the 4th through to ih decades [from 21 to GO years J with 75% or the patients in this study falling in this age range. The rate ofmalignancy in this study is 2.9(10 having registered only two cases. The findings indicate that there exists a relationship between the cytological status and the age 01' the patients, internal consistency. outline/margin, presence or the peripheral halo. vascularity and presence of calcifications. There was no signi Iicant relationship established between the cytological findings and the variables gender. number of nodules and echogenicity.