Curriculum planning for art education for schools and colleges in Kenya
Robarts, Geraldine Sally
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The present study is an attempt to identify and articulate characteristics of an appropriate art programme for Secondary schools and Teacher Training Colleges in Kenya and to plan for their maximum realization. Investigation of this study is centred around prevailing theories on main goals for Kenyan education, for art education in general, and for art education within thin Kenya specifically. A final area of investigation examined prevalent theories and ideas on the integrative nature and role of art education. It is of the utmost importance that the country should promote its social and cultural values based on the philosophy of African Socialism and its African tradi tions of political democracy and mutual social responsibility. Man was created to know and to love and out of the various combinations of these two capacities spring all his potentialities which is the obligation of an educational system to develop. The following methodological steps were used to organise the project. In 1977 the writer made a three week study visit to the Institute of Education, London University. The Schools Council organized a programme of visits to schools and colleges as well as postgraduate Art Education Seminars in the Institute. Other information was obtained from the E. A. Examinations Council, the Kenyatta University tollege Library and the Inspectorate. Empirical data on th practical aspect of what is done in schools have been gathered from all schools teaching art to Advanced Certificate Level through the questionnaire. The information was checked by observations and interviews, with the same teachers who answered the questionnaire, at six different schools visited. Information was also obtained by conducting activities undertaken in Art and movement workshop sessions at Kenyatta University College and a chapter on New and Renewable Sources in Art Education is included. Chapter VI forms the basis for a much needed handbook in Kenya. Reference was made to the Bessey Report of 1972 inquiring into the Status of ,Art and Music in schools. The Report is concerned with Art as part of the curriculum in schools in Kenya. It was the responsibility of a committee headed by Gordon S. Bessey to compile a report on education in primary and secondary schools of Kenya, inquiring into the status of Art and Music in the schools. This thesis adds to these findings wi th the statistics for Art both 'A' and '0' levels for all schools from 1975-1980 together with the statistics from the questionnaire bringing the information about the teaching of Art to 1981. Also included in this thesis is the writers syllabus for Primary Teachers Colleges which was accepted by Kenya Institute of Education and from which they produced their Third Draft Syllabus for Primary Teachers Colleges and a Draft Syllabus for Art Education at Kenyatta University College. The findings of the research show that in Art education the European model that is being imitated belongs to the nineteenth century and not to the present. Specifically at the primary school level and quite often at the secondary school level the child is taught to copy conventional realistic drawings from text books. A look at the Kenyan experience, based on this study, shows that most of the problems of art education in Kenya arise from the shortage of art teachers, the lack of teaching materials, and the nar-r-ow circumscri bed school art programmes which have stemmed from a lack of direction and concrete proposals. Those who are or may be connected wi th the purpose and planning of art education in Kenya should take into consideration the following vital points.