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The use of intrauterine device in 147 patients treated in the Gynecological Unit at the Kenyatta National Hospital for pelvic inflammatory disease, was compared with the use in a sexually active,age -parity, matched,control group. (34%) of the patients and (7.5%) of the controls were using an I.U.D. Thus the relative risk of developing P.I.D. was raised by 4.5 by I.U.D. use. More than half the P.I.D. cases (68%) were between the age group of 21 - 30 years, and in the same group the majority of the I. U. D. wearers were found. Among the I.U.D. users with P.I.D., 56% of the patients developed P.I.D. within the first week of the last menstrual Period and 78% within two wee ks 0 f the menses . Only 8% of the cases developed P.I.D. within 3 months of insertion of I.U.D.; and it is significant that 50% of the cases had been using the device for 1 year. Oral contraceptives were being taken by more controls (33.3%) than patients (7.5%).