Microbial Quality Of Non - Sterile Pharmaceutical Products Dispensed In Selected Health Centres And Community Pharmacies In Kibera, Nairobi.
Background: In developing countries, dispensing of non-sterile pharmaceuticals from multi-dose containers is common practice in hospital pharmacies, clinics, and dispensaries. These products are more vulnerable to microbial contamination during dispensing and use, which may pose serious public health repercussions or bring about physicochemical changes in the contaminated drug. Purpose: This study assessed the microbial quality of non-sterile pharmaceutical products dispensed from multi-dose containers in the informal settlement environment and provides baseline data on the common microorganisms associated with pharmaceutical products in health centres and community pharmacies Study Design: This was a descriptive cross sectional study where pharmaceutical products were sampled from health institutions within Kibera and tested for microbiological contamination Study Area: This study was conducted III health centres and community pharmacies located in Kibera, an informal settlement in Nairobi, located approximately 5 kilometers from the city centre. Methods: The protocol for the study involved structured selection of representative non-sterile pharmaceutical products from sampled health centres and community pharmacies. Isolated contaminating microorganisms were identified and enumerated using standard microbiological protocols and PCR- based detection. Good Pharmacy Practices in these facilities were assessed using a pre- constructed checklist. Results: The assessment of microbiological quality of non-sterile pharmaceuticals sampled in this study showed that thirty thirty-seven (37) samples, comprising 48% of samples, had microbial contamination. The proportion of the products that did not comply with the acceptance criteria for microbial quality of non-sterile pharmaceuticals was 14%. The principal contaminants isolated comprised bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus. Other contaminants included Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas and Candida species. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the microbial contamination level of non-sterile pharmaceuticals dispensed from retail packs from both health centers and community pharmacies in Kibera. Majority of the samples examined complied with the specifications for microbial contamination. It is likely that the source of contamination of non- sterile pharmaceutical products dispensed in Kibera is largely from the environment.