Towards appropriate safe water and sanitation systems in low incomeurban settlements
Basic infrastructure, which includes water supply, sanitation, drainage and solid waste disposal services is essential for safeguarding health, protecting the environment and promoting the efficient operation of human settlements. Where these services are lacking or inadequate, both health and environmental problems are likely to occur. This study aims at examining the present water supply and waste management systems used in the area of study, with a view to establi~hing the factors that may have contributed to the present situation (of inadequacy) of the same. The Study findings"show that the existing water supply and sanitation systems have various limitations and are therefore inadequate considering the high population density of the study area. Various factors are responsible for this situation. These factors include soil characteristics, lack of support services, socia-economic factors and institutional prejudice among others. It is also evident that investme~t in housing does not seem to take into account crucial services such as sanitation and water supply systems as some of the built plots in the area of study lack these essential facilities': Recommendations ~ade in this study are geared towards re~ersing the present situation (of inadequacy of essential services) to one where every resident of the area can have easy access It i~ therefore recommended that water supply and sanitation systems should be adequate and appropriate in order to achieve health goals and a sanitary environment. However. on their own, water and waste management systems cannot achieve health goals; they require support services such as lighting, access roads and public health education among others.