A comparative cross-sectional study on the geographical differences in the prevalence of HIV-related opportunistic infections in Murang' a and Taita Taveta
Mbatia, Serah F
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The study was done to establish if geographical differences exist in the prevalence of HIV-related opportunistic infections. AIDS-defining OIs are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among persons infected with HIV. Though previous studies have used cohort studies, this study was a comparative cross sectional study. This was the best study method to use due to limited time and funds. It was based in Taita Taveta district in Coast Province and Murang'a district in Central Province using data from CCCs in these areas. The districts were chosen on the basis of having stable populations. The CCCs were in Murang'a District Hospital and Muriranja SDH in Murang'a District: the Taveta and the Voi (Moi) District Hospital in Taita Taveta District. The study took place during the month of August. The prophylaxis given was usually cotrimoxazole. Objective The objective was to establish the geographical distribution of HIV -related opportunistic infections in Taita Taveta and Murang'a using data from a number of the comprehensive care centers in these areas. Method The study population was HIV -positive individuals who used the comprehensive care facilities in Taita Taveta and Murang'a. The HIV prevalence in Taita Taveta is 3.3% and that of Murang'a is 4.1%. The study population of 140 in Taita Taveta and 168 in Murang'a included HIV -positive adults of ages 15-49 years who used these comprehensive care centers. Sampling was done randomly from these various centers for the required sample population. Data was collected using data collection forms. Data analysis .• Data was entered and cleaned using Excel. This data was then imported into STATA and analysis was run using various statistical tests. These statistical tests included categorical data analysis and logistic regression analysis to find the relationships between the OIs and the other variables. The different proportions in these two areas were also calculated. The data was then summarized using tables and graphs. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results There was a difference in the prevalence of HIV -related opportunistic infections between the two districts with a P-value = 0.001. Analysis between the urban and rural populations showed no difference between the urban population with a Pvvalue = 0.104, but a significant difference existed in the rural population with a P-value = 0.006. The opportunistic infections were highly associated with the sex of the;participants with a Pvalue = 0.00. Those on prophylaxis were 76% more protected than those not on prophylaxis with a P-value = 0.029. I Conclusions The study findings support t\1.ehypothesis that there exist geographical differences in the prevalence of HIV -related opportunistic infections.