Effects of principals' leadership styles on motivation levels of teachers in public secondary schools in Narok North District, Kenya
Nakola, Stephen K
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This study investigated the effects of principals' leadership style on motivation levels of teachers in public secondary schools in Narok North district, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were; to examine the leadership styles used by public secondary schools principals in management of schools, to determine the extent to which principals' leadership style influence teachers' level of motivation, to assess the level of motivation of secondary school teachers and to establish leadership interventiosn that would lead to improved motivation interventions that would lead to improved motivation among the teachers. The study was carried out in 30 public secondary schools in Narok North district. The sample population consisted of 30 principals and 74 teachers. A review of literature was carried out under the following sub-titles; the concept of leadership, leadership theories, studies on school leadership, the concept of motivation, motivation theories, trends in the study of teacher motivation, motivation factors, highlights on leadership style and teacher motivation, and review of leadership styles and their effects on KCSE performance. The study was guided by the expectancy theory of work motivation as advanced by Vroom (1964). The study embarked on ex-postfacto research design and the data was collected using three sets of questionnaires that is the principal and two for the teachers. The instruments were piloted and tested for validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics were used in the data analysis generated by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The research questions were answered and the following were the findings; i. The principals were rated significantly higher in initiating structure dimension (55.86%) than in consideration dimension (47.89%). ii. The principals perceived themselves as very democratic with a rated mean of 4.24 while the teachers perceived them as just democratic with a mean of3.43. The most prevalent style being used is democratic style 46.67%, autocratic 30% and laissez-faire is the least prevalent with 2.67%. iii. Principals who were perceived to be exhibiting democratic style had a considerably highly motivated staff (87%) than those perceived to be autocratic and laissez-faire with rating of25%. iv. The motivation level of teachers in Narok North district, Kenya is depended on the variables of involvement in decision making which rated 87% as extremely likely to influence their level of motivation and tactful discipline variable was the lowest rated 25% to influence teacher motivation. The leadership interventions suggested to improve the leadership centred on wide consultation, involvement of all teachers in decision making rated at 62.3% responses and application of consideration dimension with 43.2% responses.The recommendatiosn made are; the Ministry of education through KESI should design frequent and vigorous training programmes to appraise management skills of the principals. Data provided on Table 8 reflect seminars and work shops as the common sessions 56% and 45% respectively. However the duration and frequency is 1 week and 2 weeks and yearly at 50%. The TSC should also design a teacher motivation programme to encourage teachers to go for post graduate studies and retain them in the service in order to benefit from the skill and expertise. The school administrators should establish and strengthen guidance and counseling departments in schools address teachers challenges with a view to address their concerns and involve them in decisions of school building. The conclusions were; for the principals to enhance effective leadership in the management of schools they should combine both the initiating structure and consideration dimension to enhance teacher motivation. The suggestions included among others the study of environmental factors and its influence on teacher motivation. Similar study with the perceptions of PTA and BoG members on leadership style of the principal and teacher level of motivation be determined considering the variable of age, gender and teaching experience.