HIV testing men in the antenatal setting: understanding male non-disclosure.
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Prevention of infant HIV is a powerful incentive for maternal HIV diagnosis and an opportunity to increase male HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status within couples. We examined male HIV disclosure in couples who attended a Nairobi antenatal clinic (ANC), had individual HIV testing, and were counselled to disclose to their partner. At two-week follow-up, men and women independently reported HIV disclosure. Of 2104 women, 1993 requested partner attendance; 313 male partners came, of whom 183 chose individual HIV testing. Of 106 couples who followed up, 93% of both partners reported disclosure by women versus 71% by men (P < 0.0001); 27% of men reported disclosure while their female partner reported not knowing partner HIV status. In these couples, male ANC HIV testing did not result in shared knowledge of HIV status. Couple counselling models that incorporate disclosure may yield greater HIV prevention benefits than offering individual partner HIV testing services at ANC.