Institutional factors affecting municipal solid waste management compliance: a case study of Waste Transporters in Nairobi City
Makuyu, Godfrey O
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The study set out to' establish the institutional factors affecting municipal waste transportation within the Nairobi City. The specific objectives were: to investigate whether waste transporters were aware of the Waste Management Regulations of 2006 in the city; to find out whether waste transporters comply with the Waste Management Regulations of 2006; and, to determine whether institutional factors affect compliance of Waste Management Regulations 2006 by waste transporters operating within Nairobi City. The respondents consisted of managers of all the 77 companies listed in the Licensed Garbage Collectors data base 2011 obtained from the City Council of Nairobi. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire, field visits arid interview guide and analyzed using inferential statistics which statistics involved Spearman's Rho and Chi-square tests. Summaries in frequency tables, pie charts and bar graphs were presented. The findings revealed that majority (59.6%) of the companies used open or half-covered vehicles and 80.9% of waste transporters vehicles were inspected and 83% were licensed to transport waste. Waste transporters' awareness was positively and significantly correlated to vehicle inspection (r, =.639, p<.05); licensing (rs =.699,p<.05) and vehicle labeling tr, =.479, p<.05). There was a significant relationship between the design of vehicle and licensing (X2=6.542,p<.05). Compliance in terms of vehicle inspection was significantly related to the waste collection point (X2=6.909, p<.05). There was a strong and significant relationship between the design of transportation vehicles used and the licensing authority (X2=26.124, p<.05). The relationship between the design of transportation vehicles used and the inspecting authority was statistically significant (X2=20.594,p<.05). From the study, there was no sufficient evidence to reject the hypothesis that, Waste transporters in Nairobi did not significantly comply with the Waste Management Regulations of 2006. The lack' of compliance was largely attributable to both regulative and normative institutional factors. Lack of enforcement was glaring, especially on the part of NEMA the body that is mandated to ensure compliance of environmental laws countrywide. Municipal waste management requires significant investment both in the immediate and in the long term. In the interim, NEMA and the City Council of Nairobi should lobby the media into a public environmental awareness .and advocacy campaign that communicates both the legal obligations of all citizens and appeal to all actors to engage in eco- friendly practices. Long term strategies must work towards making investment in the waste sector attractive and ironing out technical drawbacks of the current legal framework. Future studies in the area should address the cognitive pillar of Institutional Theory, the role of corruption and politics and how environmental management actors could engage urban 'citizens and actors into compliance with Waste Management Regulations of 2006.