Male circumcision and risk of male-to-female HIV-1 transmission: a multinational prospective study in African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples.
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Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV-1 transmission risk by approximately 60%. Data assessing the effect of circumcision on male-to-female HIV-1 transmission are conflicting, with one observational study among HIV-1-serodiscordant couples showing reduced transmission but a randomized trial suggesting no short-term benefit of circumcision. Data collected as part of a prospective study among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples were analyzed for the relationship between circumcision status of HIV-1-seropositive men and risk of HIV-1 acquisition among their female partners. Circumcision status was determined by physical examination. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used. A total of 1096 HIV-1-serodiscordant couples in which the male partner was HIV-1-infected were followed for a median of 18 months; 374 (34%) male partners were circumcised. Sixty-four female partners seroconverted to HIV-1 (incidence 3.8 per 100 person-years). Circumcision of the male partner was associated with a nonstatistically significant approximately 40% lower risk of HIV-1 acquisition by the female partner (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.35-1.10, P = 0.10). The magnitude of this effect was similar when restricted to the subset of HIV-1 transmission events confirmed by viral sequencing to have occurred within the partnership (n = 50, hazard ratio 0.57, P = 0.11), after adjustment for male partner plasma HIV-1 concentrations (hazard ratio 0.60, P = 0.13), and when excluding follow-up time for male partners who initiated antiretroviral therapy (hazard ratio 0.53, P = 0.07). Among HIV-1-serodiscordant couples in which the HIV-1-seropositive partner was male, we observed no increased risk and potentially decreased risk from circumcision on male-to-female transmission of HIV-1.