Kenya national inventory of persistent organic pollutants (pops) under the stockholm convention. Gef/unep/gok - part iv: identification and quantification of dioxins and furans releases in kenya
Jumba, Isaac O
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The total Dioxins (PCDD) and Furans (PCDF) release in Kenya is estimated to be 4,740 g TEQ per annum. The Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category generates 4,304 g TEQ which is the highest of all the categories that were identified, amounting to 91% of the total national release. Waste Incineration generated 249.4 g TEQ equivalent to 5% of the total national release, while Disposal/Landfilhng category has a notable contribution of 106 g TEQ which amounts to 2% of the total national release. Ferrous and non ferrous metal production contributes 12.8 g TEQ which is equivalent to 0.3% of the total national release. Releases from the remaining categories are not significant when compared to the ones already mentioned. However, this does not in anyway underrate their importance, especially in instances where total elimination by application of Best Available Technologies (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP) can be achieved. These results are summarised in Table Tl and Figures Fl and F2. Uncontrolled domestic waste burning, a subcategory under the Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category, is the single most significant source of PCDD/PCDF. It generates 2168 g TEQ, which is equivalent to 45.7% of the total national releases. Landfill fires sub category is the second significant source of release, contributing 2126.3g TEQ which is equivalent to 44.8% of the total national release. With regards to vectors, air receives the bulk of the PCDD/PCDF amounting to 3,103 g TEQ which is equivalent to 66% of the total national release. The bulk of this release comes from the Uncontrolled Combustion Processes, amounting to 2854g TEQ, which is equivalent to 92% of the total national release to air. Release to residues amounts to 1,614 g TEQ which is approximately 34% of the total national release, with the main contributor to this being Uncontrolled Combustion Processes, These results are summarised in Figure F2. Uncontrolled Combustion Processes category therefore requires significant attention because of the great impact it may have in the country. Policies to govern the management of solid waste are necessary and would go along way in minimizing this impact. Similar efforts to address medical waste would also have a significant impact on the releases in the country. The release of PCDD/PCDF to water also needs to be addressed seriously considering the fact that a significant percentage of the country's population relies on surface water for domestic use. There are no municipal waste incinerators in Kenya but there are isolated hazardous waste incinerators. However, the inventory has established that the medical waste accounts for the bulk of releases for this category. This is because majority of the government district hospitals and institutions operate the De Mont fort type incinerators. Only two major hospitals operate commercially acquired incinerators. However, most of the incinerators do not have effective air pollution control systems (APCs). To a large extent many of The medical facilities either openly bum their waste or have installations called incinerators which in effect are open burners. The total release from this category averages 249.4 g TEQ. Hazardous wastes or waste oil are not currently used as fuel for firing cement kilns for fear of compromising on cement quality.