Designing Instructions For Distance Learning In The 21st Century
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The debate around distance education has often been reduced to issues of access and quality. Much discussion surrounds designing instructions for distance learning. Good instructional design produces good outcomes and poor instructional designs produce poor outcomes. From a practical perspective, these are concerns that must be addressed and balanced when designing education to be delivered at a distance. This paper addresses these concerns based on designing instructions for distance learning. This paper draws data from different national and international sources. The paper begins with a review of the related literature. The study carried out in July 2010 on “critical review of instructional design process of distance learning system”. The study was carried out at Allama Iqbal University (AIOU). The study used survey design. Key findings of this study indicate that there is need to conduct need’s assessment before writing any course that need multimedia support i.e. audio and video-cassettes and computer diskettes may be provided along with study materials and finally, illustrations and self assessment. Designing of instructions for distance learning is mainly influenced by objectives, course content, experience and qualification of teachers and learners characteristics. Modern technology of e-learning is expensive and hence learners’ background will dictate on which mode at a distance will be more affordable and effective when designing instructions for distance learning. Designing of instructions for distance learning will be determined by evaluation, assessment, 44 UoN - ISO 9001:2008 Certified and feedback procedures. Thus, this paper will further consider the following aspects: meaningful and meaningless instructions, feedback model, Dick and Carey system and Oar model. The paper will also discuss the theories of distance learning by Moore and Holmberg. In spite of its significance, designing instructions for distance learning has its challenges. These challenges include insufficient support from the stakeholders, and inadequate teaching and learning resources. We suggest that the key stakeholders to participate in transformation of educational system into distance education and training of the stakeholders in the handling of distance education materials. Keywords; Designing instruction, distance learning and distance education, instructional models, meaningful learning meaningless learning, involvement evaluation, assessment and feedback.