The Effect of Local Cooking Methods on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Contents in Beef, Goat Meat, and Pork as Potential Sources of Human Exposure in Kisumu City, Kenya
Onyango, Alice Anyango
Lalah, Joseph O
Wandiga, Shem O
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Roasted meat is known to be a major source of human exposure to PAHs. The contribution of direct-heat charcoal-roasted, electric- oven grilled, and shallow-pan fried meat to human exposure in Kisumu City was not known although the three modes of cooking meat are very prevalent. This study analyzed the concentrations of the PAHs in raw beef, goat meat, and pork, investigated the effect of direct-heat charcoal roasting, electric-oven grilling, and shallow-pan frying on these concentrations, and compared their concentration levels with international standards for foods in order to assess the potential risks to consumers. Samples were taken from three popular meat-roasting hotels within Kisumu City, Kenya. Extraction of PAHs was done using liquid-liquid partition after saponification with alcoholic potassium hydroxide followed by clean-up on a silica gel column and final analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Roasting and shallow-pan frying introduced new PAHs and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the concentrations of those existing in raw meat. Direct-heat charcoal roast beef had 5 new PAHs and a total mean PAH content of 17.88 μg/kg, compared with a mean of 1.39 μg/kg for raw beef, with the potent dibenz(a,h)anthracene also being detected. Direct-heat charcoal roasted goat meat had three new PAHs and a total mean PAH content of 4.77 μg/kg, compared with a mean of 2.13 μg/kg in raw meat, with the potent benzo(a)pyrene concentration being 8.84% of the total mean PAH. Fried pork had 7 new PAHs and a total mean PAH content of 3.47 μg/kg, compared with a mean total of 0.17 μg/kg, detected in the raw meat. Roast beef had the highest individual PAH concentration (5.03 μg/kg) and highest total PAHs concentration (17.88 μg/kg), both being higher than acceptable EU limits. The PAHs from local raw and cooked meat were characterized and quantified for the first time in Kisumu City and the study therefore provided the needed baseline data on PAHs in raw and cooked meat.