Horizontal transmission of mycotic infection in adult tsetse,Glossina morsitans morsitans
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AdultGlossina morsitans morsitans exposed to wet conidia ofBeauveria bassiana andMetarhizium anisopliae suffered high mortalities ranging from 90 to 100% by 2 weeks post-exposure. Infected ♂ ♂ maintained in the same cages with non-infected ♀♀ throughout the experimental period transmitted the fungal infection to the ♀♀ resulting in mortalities of 65% withB. bassiana and 55% withM. anisopliae. Likewise, infected ♀♀ maintained together with non-infected ♂♂ transmitted the infection to the ♂♂ resulting in mortalities of 75% withB. bassiana and 45% withM. anisopliae. Female tsetse flies infected withB. bassiana andM. anisopliae and maintained in the same cages with non-infected ♀♀ also transmitted infection to the non-infected tsetse resulting in mortalities of 62% and 48% withB. bassiana andM. anisopliae respectively. Infected tsetse exposed to non-infected tsetse of the opposite sex for only 30 min were also able to transmit the fungal infection. Pupae produced by female tsetse infected withB. bassiana andM. anisopliae exhibited higher pupal mortality than those produced by non-infected ♀♀. However, pupae exposed directly to dry spores ofB. bassiana andM. anisopliae had no increase in pupal mortality but adults emerging from theB. bassiana-exposed pupae had markedly reduced longevity.