Mortality in adult tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans, caused by entomopathogenic bacteria
Kaaya Godwin P.
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Mortality in adult tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans, caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis H-14, B. thuringiensis 1, B. thuringiensis 5, B. thuringiensis var. insraelensis, and Providentia rettgeri was determined. When bacteria were smeared on rabbit skin and tsetse allowed to feed only once on the contaminated area, mortality 8 days postingestion was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) in tsetse fed on P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, B. thuringiensis 1, and P. rettgeri and increased when tsetse were allowed to feed for the second time on the contaminated skin. With this smear technique, however, mortalities were generally not remarkable. In artificial membrane feeding experiments using low concentrations of bacteria (-10(6)/ml of blood), the B. thuringiensis strains caused low mortality, except B. thuringiensis H-14, which caused 59% mortality. However, at this concentration, P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, B. cereus, and P. rettgeri caused highly significant (P less than 0.01) mortality (64-96%). When higher concentrations of bacteria (10(7)/ml) were used, all the bacteria tested, except B. sphaericus, caused high mortality ranging from 70 to 98%. Thus, mortality depended on the species of bacteria, the dose ingested, and time postingestion.