Retinal detachment in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
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Cytomegalovirus retinopathy is the most frequent opportunistic infection of the eye in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We studied 71 patients with cytomegalovirus retinopathy (n = 69) or acute retinal necrosis (n = 2) with respect to the frequency and management of retinal detachment. Retinal detachment was seen in 14 patients (relative frequency, 19.7%). In 2 patients, the retinal detachment was bilateral. In 5 patients, pars plana vitrectomy and silicone-oil tamponade was performed, and in 1 of these patients scleral buckling was applied before vitrectomy. In 3 other patients scleral buckling was performed, and 1 of these individuals had sulfur-hexafluoride injection. In 8 eyes (6 patients), retinal detachment occurred in eyes with completely burned-out retinopathy without relevant function, and no surgical treatment was performed. Long-term retinal reattachment was seen in all 5 patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy with silicone-oil tamponade. Visual acuity was preserved until the last follow-up in 4 of these 5 patients. In the patients undergoing a buckling procedure alone, no anatomic or functional success was observed. During vitrectomy, reduced retinal vascular perfusion and blood-flow sludging was observed in 2 patients. As the duration of survival of patients with AIDS and cytomegalovirus retinopathy or acute retinal necrosis is increasing, more cases of retinal detachment will be observed. Overall, 5% of patients with AIDS are expected to develop retinal detachment. In conclusion, treatment of cytomegalovirus-associated retinal detachment by pars plana vitrectomy with silicone-oil tamponade seems to be successful and safe and may maintain the patient's quality of life.