The effectiveness of the new fluoroquinolones against the normal bacterial flora of the conjunctiva
de Kaspar, HM
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BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of the preoperative conjunctival bacterial flora against 25 commonly used antibiotics, especially the new fluoroquinolones levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion technique was used to test for the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of conjunctival bacterial strains isolated from 160 patients (median=74 years, mean=71 years) undergoing cataract surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, CA, USA. RESULTS: Among the 256 bacteria isolated, 201 (79%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), 26 Staphylococcus aureus, 15 Streptococcus group D and 14 gram-negative rods. A total of 100 of these 256 strains (39%) were classified as multiresitant (resistant to>or=five antibiotics). The resistance rate (RR) of commonly used antibiotics for all CNS was: gatifloxacin=moxifloxacin<gentamycin=tobramycin=levofloxacin=neomycin<ciprofloxacin=ofloxacin<erythromycin. The RR for S. aureus and the gram-negative rods was low and insignificant in comparison to the other antibiotics tested. None of the Streptococcus group D were resistant to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, or moxifloxacin, however, they were highly resistant (RR over 30%) to the other antibiotics. Some 50% of the bacteria were resistant to erythromycin. CONCLUSION: Newer generation fluoroquinolones provide excellent efficacy against coagulase-negative staphylococci and Streptococcus group D despite a high number of multiresitant bacteria.