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Two elderly people were given intravenous infusion of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) as treatment for arthritis. One became seriously ill, the other remained well. Both had similar changes in aspartate transaminase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase and evidence of haemolysis. This is the first report of serum enzyme changes and anaemia after intravenous DMSO in man.