Determinants of job satisfaction among pre school teachers in Garbatula District, Kenya
Ngovi, Japheth M
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This research sought to establish the determinants of pre-school teachers' job satisfaction in Garbatulla district, Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to find the relationship between training, supervision and pay of pre- school teachers and job satisfaction, The study used questionnaires for head teachers and pre-school teachers respectively to determine pre-school teachers' levels of job satisfaction. Twenty eight (28). head teachers and twenty eight (28) pre- school teachers were respondents. These fifty six (56) respondents were in twenty eight (28) primary schools which were selected through purposeful sampling out of thirty one (31) schools found in the district. A total of fifty six (56) questionnaires were administered, out of which forty eight (48) were returned giving about eighty five (85.5) percent return rate. The data was analyzed using frequencies and ANOV A in SPSS statistical package. The first objective was to determine the relationship between training and pre- school teachers' job satisfactions established that only half (50 percent) of the pre-school teachers had received training while another 50 percent had received none. Those who had attended the training was in the form of Diplomas, Certificate or workshops offered by various stakeholdersinc1uding county council of Isiolo, UNICEF, Ministry of education, schools and self sponsored. The ANOV A results indicated that job satisfaction among preschool teachers' varies significantly with training (F=4.02, Sig=O.013) at p<O.OS. The results indicate that there exists a significant relationship between level of training and pre-school teachers job satisfaction with training at diploma and certificate levels having high job satisfaction level compared to workshops. The second objective sought to determine the perception of pre-school teachers towards head teachers' supervision. The study established that head teachers' conducted instructional supervision, coordinated activities and provided resources to pre-school teachers. Sometimes the supervision was delegated to deputy head teachers', subject teachers, senior teachers and teachers on duty. The ANOV A results indicated that the level of job satisfaction vary significantly with the level of supervision at p<O.OS (F=3.708, Sig''O.02S). This means that when pre-school teachers were supervised by the head teachers and other personnel, the supervision significantly affected the job satisfaction than when they-were not supervised at all. However, the pre-school teachers were more satisfied, the research revealed, when supervised directly by the head teachers than when he did the supervision through delegation (table 4.9). The last objective was to determine the perception of pre-school teachers salary on job satisfaction of pre-school teachers, the findings show that 39 percent of the pre-school teachers rated their job satisfaction as poor, with another 21 percent rating it as very poor. The reasons why the preschool teachers rated job satisfaction with respect to salary as ranging from dissatisfied or very dissatisfied were possibly because the salaries were low (ksh.l000-2,OOO for 57 percent) and were paid inconsistently as they had to be raised from the poor parents. Not one of the sponsors such as World Vision, UNICEF, OXFAM and Ministry of Development of Northern Kenya had volunteered to bear the cost of the pre-school teachers' payroll in the district. The Teachers Service Commission was yet to employ pre-school teachers. The study finding was in line with literature review that poor salaries are one of the principal reasons for withdrawal from the profession due to job dissatisfaction of pre-school teachers who asserts that below average salaries and scanty salary scales are also among the main elements that account for pre-school teachers with alternative career options leaving the profession. Further ANOV A results indicated that the level of job satisfaction vary significantly with the level of salary at p<O.05 (F=4.96, Sig=O.016). To improve salary of pre-school teachers, headteachers structure incremental salary to ensure that teachers are motivated as they expect an annual salary increase and paying them promptly on regular basis to enable them plan their salary which can-be done if they are placed on payroll by the government.