Malaria transmission potential of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Mwea‐Tebere irrigation scheme, Kenya
Ijumba, J N
Mwangi, R W
Beier, J C
MetadataShow full item record
Anopheles arabiensis Patton and An.funestus Giles were identified as vectors of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Mwea-Tebere irrigation scheme, Kenya. An.arabiensis was the only member of the An.gambiae complex identified from chromosome characteristics. Other Anopheles species found included An.pharoensis Theobald, An.rufipes Gough and An.coustani Laveran. Survival rates per gonotrophic cycle for An.arabiensis averaged 0.37 during the short rains (October-November), 0.49 during the dry season (February) and 0.78 during the long rains (May-June). Vectorial capacities were correspondingly low due to low survival rates and a high degree of zoophily. The average duration of infective life for P.falciparum was 0.2 days for both An.arabiensis and An.funestus. In contrast, entomological inoculation rates were comparatively high: 6–8 infective bites/man/month. An.pharoensis averaged 110 bites/man/night during the short rains; 1/999 (0.1%) was positive by ELISA for P.falciparum circumsporozoite antigen, but the ELISA evidence is not conclusive for vector incrimination. In correspondence with clinical observations, the transmission of P.malariae and P.ovale is unlikely due to the low vector survival rates. The observed anomaly between low vectorial capacities and high entomological inoculation rates demonstrates the importance of accurately estimating vector sporozoite rates to monitor unstable malaria transmission in irrigated areas.