State interests as an impediment in the multilateral environmental negotiations: a case study of Kyoto protocol
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This study will analyze how state interest in climate change is an impediment to the implementation of Kyoto protocol. The process of negotiating a climate treaty concluded that since developed states were accountable 'for production of GHG gases and developing countries contributed less to the production of GHG gases but suffered more from the consequences, there was need for developed states to compensate developing states. In the beginning, developed states accepted to compensate developed states with direct monetary incentive and engage in Joint Initiatives. However, it came to the realization of the umbrella group of states that compensating states through direct monetary incentives was going to be costly, as result, when the U.S presented the proposed compensation package to its publics it was rejected citing the fact that, compensating some countries regarded as developing like China, was going to create an unfair advantage against other states, also the cost of compensation was going to be too costly for the U.S domestic constituents to bear. This particular stance by U.S threw the whole process of climate negotiations into a span. The U. S refusal to ratify the climate treaty is of great consequence to the general treaty. After the U.S withdrew, the rest of the states continued with the negotiations of climate talks, in Marrakech, states agreed that developing states were to be compensated by engaging on Clean Development Mechanism and investing in Green Bnvironment Facility by developed states. However as the literature in this study indicates, both of these mechanisms have been used by developing states as a platform to exercise and sustain their national interests, meanwhile the climate is deteriorating at an alarming rate and developing states are receiving the consequences of climate change more than ever before.