Negotiation leaders in internal conflicts in the Intergovernmental Authority on Developement (IGAD) region
Kiamba, Anita Ndoti
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The Inter Governmental Authority for Development Region (IGAD) has arguably experienced pervasive internal conflicts. As a result, the region has invested a lot of energy in managing the conflicts. There is need however to understand why some of the internal conflicts re occur and become more violent after they have been managed. The thesis emerges from the desire to appreciate the conduct of negotiations and determine if they have been effectively conducted in order to prevent the resurgence of further devastating conflict. The thesis argues that the key individuals in the conduct of negotiations are negotiation leaders. It argues that sustainable peace can be achieved after the negotiation process if negotiation leaders are aware of their tasks and conduct them effectively. This also ensures that principals do not directly participate in negotiations because they are more likely to be unyielding and less able to conduct successful negotiations which in turn can protract negotiations and conflict. Consequently, this thesis examines negotiation leaders in peace processes in internal conflict. It identifies four IGAD cases which bave experienced internal conflict and have had negotiations. These include Uganda, Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. These cases are each dynamic and distinct and therefore provide a comparative framework whose findings lead to generalised conclusions. Since the thesis is concerned about the prevalent failure of negotiations and peace processes in the region. It grounds its assumptions on the premise that the success of negotiations is dependent on how negotiation leaders conduct negotiations. In an effort to demonstrate this, the study identifies negotiation leaders such as Martha Karua (Kenya), Mowlid Ma'ane (Somalia) and negotiation team members like Eriya Kategaya (Uganda), James Orengo (Kenya) to interview. From these consultations the study finds that negotiation leaders are close to the principal in hierarchy or in personal relations. The study finds therefore that the negotiation leader is required to protect the interests of the party and the principal. The study identifies a number of other tasks negotiation leaders need to accomplish a successful outcome of negotiations. The study'S findings are that these tasks determine if a negotiation leader is subordinate or dominant. The study finds that the tasks are also determined by the interests of the parties and issues being negotiated like in Somalia, Uganda and Sudan. The negotiation issues were about the transition of society. Consequently. dominant negotiation leaders negotiate to preserve the status of their party, to advocate for reforms and to protect their interests. The thesis also concludes that because of the multiplicity of patiies with interests, the choice of negotiation leaders can be determined by third parties such as mediators or allies. In these circumstances, such as the Somali National Reconciliation process, the tasks of negotiation leaders are controlled and conform to those of third parties. Although the study suggested that if principals negotiate, the negotiations were likely to fail, it also finds that some negotiation issues and interests anticipate the participatory role of the principal. These findings are demonstrated in Sudan, Uganda and Somalia peace processes. Indeed, the findings from the IGAD II Sudan peace process demonstrate that although Garang, the principal of SPLA participated in negotiations, the outcome was successful. The study concludes that the principal is an additional and distinct type of negotiation leader. The study finds that although negotiation leaders can perform the required tasks, negotiations can fail primarily because the principal may not sign or implement an agreement. For instance, in the Uganda negotiations the negotiation leaders should have realised that the principals were negotiating in bad faith because they had not reached a ripe moment. Also, negotiation leaders may not perform all tasks but achieve a partially successful outcome from negotiations. In Somali, if negotiation leaders would have consulted more amongst themselves and their constituents, the outcome would have been successful. The study finally concludes that in light of these contradictions, negotiation leaders need to possess skills and knowledge which will enable them perform the tasks effectively in order manage conflict in the IGAD region. The successful negotiations Sudan and Kenya also demonstrate that the length of conflict and and issues negotiated are not in themselves obstacles to successful negotiations if negotiation leaders perform their roles.