Track two diplomacy in environmental security in the Nile Basin
Kingoina, Enock Omweri
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This study examines the role of track two diplomacy in environmental security in the Nile basin. It analyses the study under three themes namely; security, track two diplomacy, and environmental security in the Nile basin. The study used primary and secondary sources of information to collect data. Primary data was pursued under two categories, unpublished primary data and published primary data. Particular non governmental organizations were identified, these organizations are involved in Nile issues, information from them was used to develop literature review and also Chapters Three and Four. Unpublished primary documents were sourced from these identified organizations. Apart from non governmental organizations, information was also sought from the Nile Basin Initiative country office in Kenya, this was useful in understanding the role oftrack one actors in the Nile basin. This study used the liberalism theory as the framework of study. Liberalism theory was important since it recognizes the fact that in the conduct of international relations, states are not solitary actors, but are substituted by non state actors. From the research study, it emerged that, track two actors enhance cooperation of relations among state actors in the Nile basin, although they don't substituted the role of states, they are useful because of their skills, technical knowledge and ability to lobby. It also emerged from the study that environmental security in the Nile basin has not been secured. There are numerous threats to environmental security, like land degradation, pollution; population growth and loss of wetlands. The main reason why states have failed in securing environmental threats is because, they pursue policies as solitary actors yet the Nile resources is a trans boundary issue. It also emerged that internal conflicts within states deter stares from pursuing environmental security.