Elemental analysis of size-fractionated particulate matter sampled in Göteborg, Sweden
Gatari, Michael J
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The aim of the study was to investigate the mass distribution of trace elements in aerosol samples collected in the urban area of Göteborg, Sweden, with special focus on the impact of different air masses and anthropogenic activities. Three measurement campaigns were conducted during December 2006 and January 2007. A PIXE cascade impactor was used to collect particulate matter in 9 size fractions ranging from 16 to 0.06 µm aerodynamic diameter. Polished quartz carriers were chosen as collection substrates for the subsequent direct analysis by TXRF. To investigate the sources of the analyzed air masses, backward trajectories were calculated. Our results showed that diurnal sampling was sufficient to investigate the mass distribution for Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Sr and Zn, whereas a 5-day sampling period resulted in additional information on mass distribution for Cr and S. Unimodal mass distributions were found in the study area for the elements Ca, Cl, Fe and Zn, whereas the distributions for Br, Cu, Cr, K, Ni and S were bimodal, indicating high temperature processes as source of the submicron particle components. The measurement period including the New Year firework activities showed both an extensive increase in concentrations as well as a shift to the submicron range for K and Sr, elements that are typically found in fireworks. Further research is required to validate the quantification of trace elements directly collected on sample carriers.