Prevalence of opportunistic infections in relation to environmental risk factors among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Embakasi Division, Nairobi
Opportunistic infections increase morbidity and mortality rates among persons living with mY/AIDS. These make populations be trapped in a vicious cycle that exacerbates the spread of the disease. Literature reveals that environmental risk factors of water, sanitation, hygiene and housing, if not properly addressed or provided, lead to prevalence of opportunistic infections. Their relation as factors has not been established as relates to prevalence of opportunistic infections. This study was sought to describe the environmental risk factors for opportunistic infections among mY/AIDS patients within Embakasi Division of Nairobi, Kenya. The study objective was to determine the prevalence of opportunistic infections, analyze the level of sanitation and hygiene status, determine the quality and quantity of water used as well as to Compare the prevalence of opportunistic infections for different environmental risk factors among Persons living with HIV / AIDS. This was a descriptive cross sectional study. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from HIV positive asymptomatic and AIDS patients attending the comprehensive care clinics at Kayole 1, Dandora 11 and Soweto - Kayole Primary health care clinics through the use of administered structured questionnaires, verified using a check list that was developed and key informant interviews. Stratified sampling technique was adapted to aide in identification of respondents and key informants from the field. Sample of 384 clients who attended the comprehensive care clinics were interviewed. The rate response was 96%, (371 respondents). Slightly more than a half of this population was HIV positive asymptomatic patients. The main findings were pulmonary TB was the most prevalent of the opportunistic infections, 31 % among AIDS patients. As relates to levels of sanitation and hygiene, the methods of waste disposal were found not to be significantly associated with the 01 status of the study subjects, p>0.05. There was a significant association, between quality of water and opportunistic infections where quality was assessed based on water treatment methods applied p=O.OOO. Forty per cent of the study population had access to adequate amount of water (20 litres per person per day). However, results showed no significant association between quantity of water and opportunistic infections (i=<>.039, p=0.843, PR 0.95 (0.63-1.45». Fifty four per cent of IDV positive asymptomatic patients were exposed to poor environmental risk factors as compared to AIDS patients. Results further showed that prevalence of PTB and housing, p=O.05, diarrhea and wall structure, p=O.034, safety of water and PTB, p=O.OOI and skin infections, p=0.018 had a significant association. In relation to hand washing methods, results showed a significant relationship with prevalence of diarrhea. In conclusion, the study revealed a difference in prevalence of 01 in relation to different environmental risk factors and opportunistic infection among PL WHA. There was a significant association between safety of water and PTB. On sanitation and hygiene, there was a significant association between prevalence of diarrhea and hand washing. The study recommends that the Department of Health Promotion under MOPHS to conduct awareness sessions and sensitize the community on applying appropriate hand washing methods. The study further recommends additional research is conducted to determine the association between PTB and safety of water.