Natural disaster preparedness, environmental degradation and sustainable development in Kenya
Lack of disaster preparedness has remained one of Kenya’s enduring development challenges for decades. The El Nino rains which ﬂooded most parts of the country between 1997 and 1998, and the prolonged drought during the year 2000 have both led to massive displacement of populations, loss of lives, destruction of property, water and energy crises, and the collapse of vital infrastructure. Most of the disaster response initiatives in Kenya have tended to be adhoc, uncoordinated and short-term measures, mainly in the form of emergency relief services to the worst affected areas. However, disaster and environmental management ought to integrate disaster preparedness measures and recovery operations into ongoing development programs for sustainability.