Factors influencing adolescents' participation in Tuberculosis vaccine trials: a case of Karemo Division in Siaya District, Kenya
Onyango, Peter N.
MetadataShow full item record
The success of a TB vaccine trial in adolescents would be reliant in adolescents' willingness to participate. It is thus considered to be important to investigate Tuberculosis vaccine trials knowledge and awareness among adolescents. It is necessary to develop a new Tuberculosis vaccine that can protect people from getting Tuberculosis even in adulthood. Since the development of bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) in 1921, its efficacy has gone down and it no longer protects adults against pulmonary TB, which is the most prevalent form of TB. Though it has saved some children's lives by protecting them against severe forms of pediatric TB, but it has not prevented millions of TB deaths. The adolescent age group is often considered a priority group for vaccination against tuberculosis since it has been shown that the incidence of tuberculosis begins to increase at about 12 years of age and to peak at about 19 years of age. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing adolescents' participation in tuberculosis vaccine trials, in Karemo division in Siaya District in Kenya. Among the objectives that this study investigated are influence of knowledge levels, attitude, Health seeking Practices and Economic factors on adolescents' participation in tuberculosis vaccine trials. The research employed a descriptive survey and 384 Adolescents aged between 12-18 years old were interviewed. Data was collected using questionnaires at the household level. Data was entered into the computer using SPSS application. A statistical analysis was done after data validation. All questionnaire parameters were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) for analyses. Univariate and bivariate statistics analyzed study data. Study found that majority of adolescents are aware of TB vaccine trials in Karemo division and Community health workers are the major source of information. It also revealed that all adolescents who have participated in vaccine trials in the past are willing to participate in future and the major motivating factor is to be part of a new vaccine development. A significant finding was that adolescents are not sure whether vaccines are tested on people who are sick or well. Adolescents will always seek medication when they fall sick and most adolescents are relatively healthy thus making them a prime target for vaccine trials. Socioeconomic status influences participation and adolescents participate if their parents are not able to pay for their healthcare and are able and willing to consent to their participation. Adolescents who stay near hospital tend to participate more than the ones from far. The study concludes that adolescents are aware and willing to participate in future vaccine trials. The study recommends the use of community health workers to disseminate trial information and incorporation of parents at the planning stages.