Integrated coastal zone management in kenya: A case study of the Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu area.
The Nyali-Bamburi-Shanzu coastal area has some of the richest ecosystems characterized by extensive coral reefs, sandy beaches, and dense mangrove forests. Because of the economic benefits derived from them, the area teems with human population. Traditionally, the area's economy is dependent on fisheries, mangrove harvesting and agriculture. Today, these economic sectors have been overshadowed by the development of the tourism and visitor industry. Rapid growth of population spurred by tourism and other commercial and industrial activities has resulted in urbanization. While it is generally agreed that tourism development earns Kenya the much needed foreign exchange and creates employment opportunities, controversy centers on its impact on the environment. Despite the intensity of debate, there have been very few attempts to rigorously manage the unplanned development at the coast. Integrated coastal management was studied to delineate the relevant land use patterns and attendant infrastructure, analyze key issues and institutional constraints with a view to advancing some recommendations to the stakeholders as to the way forward to balance economic development with- environmental concerns. The study found that zone is subject to increasing population and economic pressure manifested by various activities, notably fishing, mariculture, waste disposal, residential development, tourism and industrialization. However, unisectoral overuse of some of resources has caused grave problems. This together with the lack of appropriate and well-coordinated control over the use of natural resources and pollution, has resulted in declined environmental quality, resource use conflicts, natural resource depletion and coastal erosion-related damages.