School factors influencing students' discipline in public day secondary schools in Koibatek District, Kenya
Cheptile, Francis K
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The problem of indiscipline in public day secondary schools III Kenyan in recent years has been alarming. This is evident by a number of such schools that have been hit by student discipline cases among them Bombolulu Girls secondary school (1999), Nyeri High school, (2002) and Kyaguli School (2001). However the school factors that influence students' discipline in the public day secondary schools still remain debatable. This study sought to address this issue by investigating the factors influencing students' discipline in public day secondary schools in Koibatek District of Rift Valley Province, Kenya. The study/project set out to investigate the school factors influencing students' discipline in public day secondary schools in Koibatek district, Kenya. The objectives of the study included to determine the extent to which school factors influence the students' discipline; to determine the influence of school factors on students' discipline; assess the extent to which adequacy levels of facilities and resources necessary for the institution affects students' discipline; establish the extent to which the head teachers' level of training influences students' discipline as well as assessing the extent of students' discipline in public day secondary schools in Koibatek district. The study was guided by the Erikson's theory on psychosocial stages of development which was developed by Erikson (1968); that notable development occurs during adolescence physically, emotionally, psychologically and socially. Erikson's theory emphasized on human personality, the contlict due to interactions of the child with the society, the imposition of the social controls on innate emotions and the child's acquisitions of expectances with regard to how the world would treat him and how he should respond to the world (Stagner, 1974). The study used the descriptive survey design to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. The target population of the study consisted of all the 20 public day secondary schools in Koibatek district. The study used census method for schools ancl head teachers owing to their small number. Simple random sampling was used for selection of teachers and students. The total sample size for this study was 300 respondents from 20 public day secondary schools in Koibatek District. Selection of the schools (20) and head teachers (20) was a census due to their small number while simple random sampling will be used for teachers (100, five from each school) and students (160, eight from each school). The study established that students' discipline in publ ic day secondary school in Koibatek District of Rift Valley, Kenya was influenced by a number of factors among them teachers, adequacy of facilities and resources ill the school (71.3%), head teachers' qualifications (77 % have degrees), type of the school (8 1.7%), and ways of addressing disciplinary cases. The researcher therefore recommends that, guidance and counseling as an effective tool of controlling discipline should be utilized in public day secondary schools. At the same time, head teachers in day, public secondary schools should become leaders of schools and with dynamic and inspirational leadership focus on raising the teaching and learning practices in schools. Recreational activities like concerts, games, music, drama and suitable film shows should be emphasized since they promote good discipline. There should be created enough learning facilities that would enable them enjoy most of the time they spend in schools. This would minimize absenteeism and other forms of indiscipline like truancy. This found that school factors such as absenteeism 42.3% anu poor performance 33.8% influence students' discipline. Lack of facilities and resources were also found to influence students' discipline. I-Ieadteachers handling of indiscipline cases were also cited to influence students' discipline. The most common types of indiscipline cases were found to be drug and substance abuse, noise making, fighting, failure to attend to duty, sneaking, and defying teachers. Some of the suggested ways of solving indiscipline cases included organizing open forums, guidance and counseling, involving parents in indiscipline issues as well as providing school basic needs. This study concluded that most of the schools in Koibatek District generally have incidences of indiscipline that are based on school factors such as handling of indiscipline by head teachers and learning facilities. Handling of indiscipline cases by headteachers ami teachers re\ies on such issues as strictness on order and neatness in classrooms. This study recommends that headteachers should ensure there is guidance and counseling in public day secondary' schools. School management should emphasize recreational facilities in public day secondary schools. The government should ensure enough learning facilities in public day secondary schools that would enable students enjoy most of the time they spend in schools. This would minimize absenteeism and other forms of indiscipline.