Beyond structural adjustment programs: democracy, gender, equity, and development in Africa, with special reference to Kenya.
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A brief examination is presented of the economic crisis in Kenya that necessitated the introduction of structural adjustment policies, and the way these have been implemented. The impact of the SAPs on vulnerable groups, women in particular, is assessed. An attempt is made to explain the social costs of SAPs, highlighting the undemocratic nature of the African state as well as the equally undemocratic nature of the international political economy that both militate against popular participation and sustainable development. It is argued that African governments will ultimately have to give in to the popular struggles for democracy emerging in the region; only in a democratic environment can Africa's numerous human and material resources be properly mobilized for development.